PROTECT, RESTORE, PROMOTE THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE EARTH’S ECOSYSTEMS, MANAGE FORESTS SUSTAINABLY, COMBAT DESERTIFICATION, STOP LAND DEGRADATION, PREVENT THE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
Forests cover 30.7% of the Earth’s land. In addition to providing food and shelter, forests are essential for combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and indigenous people’s homes. By protecting forests, we can strengthen the management of natural resources and increase land productivity.
Thirteen million hectares of forests are currently being lost every year, and the continued degradation of dry lands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares. Although up to 15% of land is currently protected, biodiversity is still under threat. Deforestation and desertification caused by human activities and climate change pose major challenges to sustainable development and have affected the lives and livelihoods of millions of people struggling against poverty.
Efforts are being made to manage forests and combat desertification. Two international agreements are currently being implemented to promote equitable resource use. Financial investments are also being made to support biodiversity.
15.1. By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
15.2. By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
15.3. By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.
15.4. By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.
15.5. Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
15.6. Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed.
15.7. Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.
15.8. By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.
15.9. By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts.
15.A. Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.
15.B. Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation.
15.C. Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.